If I had to pick one fault of Linux, it would be that for almost everything, the Linux user is inundated with hundreds of possible solutions. This is both a blessing and a curse - for the veterans, it means that we can pick the tool that most matches how we prefer to operate; for the uninitiated, it means that we’re so overwhelmed with options it’s hard to know where to begin.
One exception is software RAID - there’s really only one option:
mdadm. I can already hear the LVM advocates screaming at me; no, I don’t have any problem with LVM, and in fact I do use it as well - I just see it as filling a different role than
mdadm. I won’t go into the nuances here - just trust me when I say that I use and love both.
There are quite a few how-tos, walkthroughs, and tutorials out there on using
mdadm. None that I found, however, came quite near enough to what I was trying to do on my newest computer system. And even when I did get it figured out, the how-tos I read failed to mention what turned out to be a very critical piece of information, the lack of which almost lead to me destroying my newly-created array.
So without further ado, I will walk you through how I created a storage partition on a RAID 10 array using 4 hard drives (my system boots off of a single, smaller hard drive).
The first thing you want to do is make sure you have a plan of attack: What drives/partitions are you going to use? What RAID level? Where is the finished product going to be mounted?
One method that I’ve seen used frequently is to create a single array that’s used for everything, including the system. There’s nothing wrong with that approach, but here’s why I decided on having a separate physical drive for my system to boot from: simplicity. If you want to use a software RAID array for your boot partition as well, there are plenty of resources telling you how you’ll need to install your system and configure your boot loader.
For my setup, I chose a lone 80 GB drive to house my system. For my array, I selected four 750 GB drives. All 5 are SATA. After I installed Ubuntu 9.04 on my 80 GB drive and booted into it, it was time to plan my RAID array.
kromey@vmsys:~$ ls -1 /dev/sd* /dev/sda /dev/sdb /dev/sdc /dev/sdd /dev/sde /dev/sde1 /dev/sde2 /dev/sde5
As you can probably tell, my system is installed on
sde. While I would have been happier with it being labeled
sda, it doesn’t really matter.
sdd then are the drives that I want to combine into a RAID.
mdadm operates on partitions, not raw devices, so the next step is to create partitions on my drives. Since I want to use each entire drive, I’ll just create a single partition on each one. Using
fdisk, I choose the fd (Linux raid auto) partition type and create partitions using the entire disk on each one. When I’m done, each drive looks like this:
kromey@vmsys:~$ sudo fdisk -l /dev/sda Disk /dev/sda: 750.1 GB, 750156374016 bytes 255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 91201 cylinders Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes Disk identifier: 0x00000000 Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System /dev/sda1 1 91201 732572001 fd Linux raid autodetect
Now that my partitions are in place, it’s time to pull out
mdadm. I won’t re-hash everything that’s in the
man pages here, and instead just demonstrate what I did. I’ve already established that I want a RAID 10 array, and setting that up with
mdadm is quite simple:
kromey@vmsys:~$ sudo mdadm -v --create /dev/md0 --level=raid10 --raid-devices=4 /dev/sda1 /dev/sdb1 /dev/sdc1 /dev/sdd1
A word of caution:
mdadm --create will return immediately, and for all intents and purposes will look like it’s done and ready. It’s not - it takes time for the array to be synchronized. It’s probably usable before then, but to be on the safe side wait until it’s done. My array took about 3 hours (give or take - I was neither watching it closely nor holding a stopwatch!). Wait until your
/proc/mdstat looks something like this:
kromey@vmsys:~$ cat /proc/mdstat Personalities : [linear] [multipath] [raid0] [raid1] [raid6] [raid5] [raid4] [raid10] md0 : active raid10 sdb1 sda1 sdc1 sdd1 1465143808 blocks 64K chunks 2 near-copies [4/4] [UUUU]
Edit: As Jon points out in the comments, you can
watch cat /proc/mdstat to get near-real-time status and know when your array is ready.
That’s it! All that’s left to do now is create a partition, throw a filesystem on there, and then mount it.
kromey@vmsys:~$ sudo fdisk /dev/md0 kromey@vmsys:~$ sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/md0p1 kromey@vmsys:~$ mkdir /srv/hoard kromey@vmsys:~$ sudo mount /dev/md0p1 /srv/hoard/
Ah, how sweet it is!
kromey@vmsys:~$ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sde1 71G 3.6G 64G 6% / tmpfs 3.8G 0 3.8G 0% /lib/init/rw varrun 3.8G 116K 3.8G 1% /var/run varlock 3.8G 0 3.8G 0% /var/lock udev 3.8G 184K 3.8G 1% /dev tmpfs 3.8G 104K 3.8G 1% /dev/shm lrm 3.8G 2.5M 3.8G 1% /lib/modules/2.6.28-14-generic/volatile /dev/md0p1 1.4T 89G 1.2T 7% /srv/hoard
Now comes the gotcha that nearly sank me. Well, it wouldn’t have been a total loss, I’d only copied data from an external hard drive to my new array, and could easily have done it again.
Everything I read told me that Debian-based systems (of which Ubuntu is, of course, one) were set up to automatically detect and activate your
mdadm-create arrays on boot, and that you don’t need to do anything beyond what I’ve already described. Now, maybe I did something wrong (and if so, please leave a comment correcting me!), but this wasn’t the case for me, leaving me without an assembled array (while somehow making
sdb busy so I couldn’t manually assemble the array except in a degraded state!) after a reboot. So I had to edit my
/etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf file like so:
kromey@vmsys:~$ cat /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf # mdadm.conf # # Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file. # # by default, scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) for MD superblocks. # alternatively, specify devices to scan, using wildcards if desired. #DEVICE partitions # auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes # automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system HOMEHOST # instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts MAILADDR root # definitions of existing MD arrays DEVICE /dev/sd[abcd]1 ARRAY /dev/md0 super-minor=0 # This file was auto-generated on Mon, 03 Aug 2009 21:30:49 -0800 # by mkconf $Id$
It certainly looks like my array should have been detected and started when I rebooted. I commented-out the default DEVICES line and added an explicit one, then added an explicit declaration for my array; now it’s properly assembled when my system reboots, which means the
fstab entry doesn’t provoke a boot-stopping error anymore, and life is all-around happy!
Update 9 April 2011: In preparation for a server rebuild, I’ve been experimenting with
mdadm quite a bit more, and I’ve found a better solution to adding the necessary entries to the
mdadm.conf file. Actually, two new solutions:
Configure your RAID array during the Ubuntu installation. Your
mdadm.conffile will be properly updated with no further action necessary on your part, and you can even have those nice handy
fstabentries to boot!
Run the command
mdadm --examine --scan --config=mdadm.conf >> /etc/mdadm/mdadm.confin your terminal. Then, open up
mdadm.confin your favorite editor to put the added line(s) into a more reasonable location.
On my new server, I’ll be following solution (1), but on my existing system described in this post, I have taken solution (2); my entire file now looks like this:
kromey@vmsys:~$ cat /etc/mdadm/mdadm.conf # mdadm.conf # # Please refer to mdadm.conf(5) for information about this file. # # by default, scan all partitions (/proc/partitions) for MD superblocks. # alternatively, specify devices to scan, using wildcards if desired. DEVICE partitions # auto-create devices with Debian standard permissions CREATE owner=root group=disk mode=0660 auto=yes # automatically tag new arrays as belonging to the local system HOMEHOST # instruct the monitoring daemon where to send mail alerts MAILADDR root # definitions of existing MD arrays ARRAY /dev/md0 level=raid10 num-devices=4 UUID=46c6f1ed:434fd8b4:0eee10cd:168a240d # This file was auto-generated on Mon, 03 Aug 2009 21:30:49 -0800 # by mkconf $Id$
Notice that I’m again using the default DEVICE line, and notice the new ARRAY line that’s been added. This seems to work a lot better – since making this change, I no longer experience the occasional (and strange) “device is busy” errors during boot (always complaining about /dev/sdb for some reason), making the boot-up process just that much smoother!